Zhège wǎngzhàn zhǐ zài chuándá shàngdì de xìnxī, huárén shìjiè. Zài tóngyī shíjiān zuò shìjiè shàng zuì guǎngfàn de yǔyán wǒ de yánjiū. （按隶Valdemir莫塔德梅内塞斯）--CHINESE LANGUAGE
This site aims to convey God's message to the Chinese world. At the same time do my research on the most widely spoken language in the world.(By Valdemir Mota de Menezes)
domingo, 23 de março de 2014
BRONZE ACUPUNCTURE FIGURE
VALDEMIR MOTA DE MENEZES
The Making and
Disappearance of the Bronze Acupuncture Figure
After the Tang dynasty ended in 907,
China experienced a
period of political instability during the Five Dynasties
and Ten Kingdoms
education during that brief period was also interrupted,
which created many social
the Song dynasty (960-1279) restored order to the empire,
the Song emperor Renzong
(1010-1063) ordered the physician Wang Weiyi
to consolidate the entire body of
and establish a system of standards
to serve the needs of the medical
profession and the general population.
Wang researched the number of
acupuncture points and their locations on the body, and in the year 1027
Illustrated Manual of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for use with the
of the work’s importance,
the text and illustrations were carved on stone tablets,
which others could
copy or use to make rubbings.
Taking rubbings from carved stone tablets is one of the
earliest forms of printing in China.
This is how it is done.
A paste is applied to
the flat, uncarved surface of the stone.
Soft white paper is then placed on
the surface of the stone,
and beaten with a pillow-like tool, so that some of the
the flat surface while some is forced into the carved out text or
paper is then “stamped” gently with a flat inked pad.
The pad only applies
ink to the flat surface of the stone, which forms the “background” of
the final rubbing,
and leaves the carved-out text or illustrations white.
Rubbing thus enables
anyone to take a perfect copy of a written text,
although the results appear as
“white on black.”
Wang Weiyi, who lived in the Song dynasty,
is also the inventor of
an important bronze human figure
that had 354 acupuncture points
indicated on its surface,
along with their names.
The figure was hollow inside and
opened up to show
models of the 11 internal viscera.
It was a superb aid in teaching
acupuncture in government institutions;
no equivalent device was produced in
the West for another 800 years.
During the Song dynasty, officials
used the bronze figure for teaching
as well as testing.
The points themselves
were filled with small amounts of mercury,
and the entire figure was covered
with wax, which concealed the points.
When a student was asked to locate a
particular point with a needle,
if he hit the point correctly,
the mercury would
spill out of the hole in the wax.
If he missed, nothing happened.
In the Song dynasty,
doctors had to master the location of every acupuncture point
on the figure in order
to obtain their license to practice,
whether they specialized in
acupuncture or moxibustion.
Treating a place on the body where there were no
acupuncture points was,
of course, useless and potentially harmful.
Historical records tell
us that Wang Weiyi made two bronze figures.
One was placed in the imperial
Office of Medicine,
and used for teaching and examinations.
The other was placed in
a famous Buddhist temple,
the Da Xiangguo temple,
in the Northern Song capital,
people could come to learn about acunpuncture.
The figure is called the Tiansheng
Bronze Figure because it was cast
in the Tiansheng reign period of the
Song Renzong emperor.
We have little historical information about the figures
a book written in the Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279) by Zhou Mi,
entitled Dong Qi Ye
Yu, an unofficial history of the period,
records an incident in which a man
sees a bronze figure used
in acupuncture and moxibustion.
The figure was cast out of
and covered with acupuncture points,
with the names of the
points written next to them.
“What is most astonishing is the way the names of the
points are not written
on the surface of the figure with brush and ink,
but rather inlaid with
Chinese characters in gold.”
This inlay or cloisonné technique was accomplished
by incising the
characters with a stylus
on the surface of the figure,
filling in the carved-out spaces
with gold filaments,
hammering the gold until it filled the space,
and polishing the
surface until it is smooth
Try to imagine a life size bronze figure as tall as I
the acupuncture points indicated with gold characters.
Only a Chinese emperor
could afford to have such a priceless object!
The book Dong Qi Ye Yu also mentions
that the figure had an opening
in the middle and models of the 11 internal organs
Dong Ye Yu was written in the Southern Song dynasty,
but the figure was made
in the earlier Northern Song dynasty.
We can thus assume that the figure
existence during the Southern Song,and that one of them was placed
in an office of the
government for safe keeping.
After the Mongols invaded China in the mid-thirteenth
the Yangtze River and conquering the Southern Song dynasty,
the famous bronze
In 1268, Kublai Khan became the first emperor of the
was a subject of great interest to the Mongols.
When Kublai got ahold of the one
remaining bronze figure,
it had already been damaged by war.
He had it repaired
and ordered a revised
version of Wang Weiyi’s book,
Illustrated Manual of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for
use with the Bronze Figure.
He had both the figure and the book placed them in the
Temple of the Three Emperors in the Mongol capital, today’s Beijing.
In 1368, the Ming
dynasty overthrew the Mongols.
Nearly a century later,
the restored bronze figure
was again seriously
damaged in an uprising,
leaving most of the names of the acupuncture points
in 1443, the Ming Zhengtong emperor ordered a copy
made of what remained of the Yuan
which was actually from the Northern Song.
This copy turned out
to be a masterpiece of bronze craftsmanship,
displaying all the acupuncture
their names in finely executed Chinese characters.
This bronze figure, known as the
Zhengtong Bronze Acupuncture Figure,
was placed in the Imperial Medical
is served as the standard
for acupuncture studies for the next five centuries.
In 1900, near the end
of the Qing dynasty,
the Eight Allied Armies entered Beijing to suppress the
Russian troops occupied the Imperial Medical College,
and in the chaos that
followed the Zhengtong acupuncture figure disappeared,
it lasted, the Qing dynasty Imperial Medical College needed a bronze
acupuncture figure on the premises
—just as the Foreign Ministry
and the Ministry of
Geology needed world globes
—so another figure was cast,
some two meters tall. This time,
was not modeled after an earlier figure,
since there was no such figure
this early-twentieth-century bronze figure stands in the National
Museum of China in Beijing.